Midrash - becomes a big technique from 400 - 1200. Most of it is being written in the Middle East: Palestine: Iraq/Iran. More Jews living in Iraq/Iran than Europe during this time period. Now there 10000 in Iraq and a few hundreds in Iran.
From 600 - 800 Isalm is born. By the 800s the religion takes over. With the rise of Islam there is a mass conversion [ of the Jews ], forced or willing.
Midrash (as a style) gives way to the Peshat or plain (as a style)
10th century = movement to the Peshat by a couple scholars.
Man: Sa’adia Gaon (Gaon meaning genius) he was based in Iran, the genius of Iran.
contra Karaites(comes from the hebrew word for scripture, they are the scripturalist, they broke from the Rabbis)
unclear who they were led by, but there is one man, Anan Bed David(Anan, slur meaning cloud, his first name may have been Aaron but it remains unknown) who ended up arguing with Sa’adia. The groups ended up being quarentined,. The Karaites don’t have the Talmud, Middle Ages text.
Anan Bed David, would go line by line of the Hebrew Bible.
Sa’adia Goan would go behind him and say, it’s not that simple this is what it means.
Sa’adia Goan wrote in commentaries.
Anan Ben David wrote his arguments in poems.
No line by line commentaries in the Midrash. This procedure is much more systematic.
Hebrew and Arabic they share the same root structure. ie: shalom vs salaam meaning peace. S-L-M
When a word was spelled funny in the Hebrew Bible, it wasn’t spelled funny, it was msispled. Karraites added in the vowles in the 10th century becaue the language did not orignlly have volwles.
Also noted when the text would swiched voice.
People who folllowed Aristotle developed rationalism.
Plotinus > Proto-mystic. No seperation between God and the universe, uses the notion of the hand to express his theory. The hand attached to the fingers and the fingers attached to the hand, can’t really imagine one without the other.
Hen to- Pan = All is One
Aristotle > Rationalism
Muslim world is flourishing during the dark ages, dark ages was Europe.
Jews take their lead from Muslims scholars.
Arrians - reject the Trinity. They invited the Muslims into Spain. Wherever the Muslims went, so followed a class of intellectual Jews. Muslim Leader and Army in the middle Jewish Beaurocrates. Milonities.
Some early notion of Jews in Italy (we know this by graveyards) in the early 900s.
Same time in Spain, in the 950s and France, they arived in England in the 1000s expelled in the 1200s. These places didn’t exist back then but that’s what they are called now. Not allowed back in until the 1600s.
To be a good trader - literate, worldly and traveller, mathmetition.
Cosmopolitinsm - the idea that the cosmos is home, they were not rooted anywhere (the Jews)
Peshat (plain) > Historical. Linguistic. Literary > context. It will take the verse and break it down to these three categories.
Rabbi Schlomo ben Itzakh Itzakhi. from 1040 - 1105. broke them dowwnnn.
Man, Troyes France was a Wine Maker
made a commentary on the Hebrew Bible, as the first printed HebrewText, printed before the Bible.
It is very clear, written in Hebrew, and preachy (tells you the moral input of the text.
Orthodox Jews, some argue they have never read the Hebrew Bible because they only ready the verision printed under Rashi. during his lifetime, this was the era of the 1st Crusade.
On the page in the Hebrew Bible.
Mikraot_ Covers in volumes.
Geclelot _ Great Scripture.
Chumansh_ No commentators.
RashBan - 1085-1158
R. Samuel b Meir
- no preaching
EX POST FACTO - vague enough everything will be true.
rejects the existence of demons. says that most possessions are a result of sickness.
Maimonides is a rationalist as well. The most famous Jewish scholar of the middle ages. “Guide to the perplexed”
St. Thomas Aquinas - Christian Catholic Scholar refers to him as, The Rabbi.
St. Thomas Aquinas. in paris, writing a book, Summa Theologica. Greatest Theology.
Rabbi Lev ben Gershom 1288 - 1344
teaches all allegories in the Hebrew Bible will be destroyed by Grammar.
every story teaches ethics
ended plural marriage